It has seemed to me worth while to show from the history of civilization just what war has done and has not done for the welfare of mankind. In the eighteenth century it was assumed that the primitive state of mankind was one of Arcadian peace, joy, and contentment. In the nineteenth century the assumption went over to the other extreme — that the primitive state was one of universal warfare. This, like the former notion, is a great exaggeration.
Free online reading 1. Introduction I think nobody can afford to ignore the progress that is made in science today. Scientific research gives us knowledge about things that nobody ever thought about just a few years ago, for example the cloning of humans.
In this essay I want to focus on this topic with special regard to the advantages and disadvantages and the social and ethical problems. I will start with a definition of cloning. The next part of the essay will be about the beginning of life followed by a listing of arguments about advantages and disadvantages of human cloning.
Furthermore my essay will involve a look on cloning and sciene fiction and finish with the economic reasons for cloning humans. My motivation to do the essay about this topic is not only that it is crucial for everybody to think about cloning but in my mind it is also very interesting and exciting to learn more about it.
It is a scientific possibility that has become reality. Maybe cloning and genetic engineering will someday even affect my life or that of my children.
I hope that I will be able to learn enough about cloning by writing this essay so that I can make up my mind on how I feel about this topic. Cloning 1 The word cloning originated from the greek and means sprout or branch.
Cloning is an asexual kind of reproduction. In order to understand the technique we first have to know how sexual reproduction basically works.
The gametes have only half of the chromosomes a body cell has because during sexual reproduction the egg cell and the sperm cell come together and create a new life which then has a complete set of chromosomes 46 in every body cell again, 23 from the mother and 23 from the father.
If gametes would have complete chromosome sets, too, the number of chromosomes in the body cells of the following generations would continue to grow. Cloning works kind of similar but since the goal is to create something which is genetically identical to one model the fertilization process has to take place with the chromosomes the hereditary material of only one person or thing.
This can only be done by scientists in the laboratory asexual. It works like this: One body cell from the model is taken and the core of the cell is removed the core contains the whole hereditary material which is on 46 chromosomes.
The fertilized egg cell then contains 46 chromosomes like it contains after sexual fertilization but with the difference that these 46 chromosomes are from one person and not from two, the man and the woman.
What happens with this fertilized egg cell next depends on what kind of cloning is to be practised, either therapeutic cloning or reproductive cloning. When the cell has itself a few times divided, the valueable embryonic stem cells can be taken from the developing embryo, hereby the embryo is killed.
These embryonic stem cells are so valueable because they can only be won from umbilical cord or from embryos and they are crucial for scientific research. The purpose of therapeutic cloning is to clone things such as organs and tissue for patients in need see advantages and disadvantages of human cloning.
Therefore reproductive cloning has the purpose of actually producing a human that is genetically identical to somebody else. When does life begin? You could say that the genetic identity is like an instruction for the creation of the embryo, it just takes nine months till this instruction is realized.
From fertilization on the embryo develops as a human and not to a human. Some other opinions to the question where life begins are the following: It needs the mothers body to survive and to develop to full maturity.
It is easily explainable why people favor this argument. After some time for example three months has passed one can at least recognize the shape of an embryo. Argument one has at least a reasoning but the others a hardly acceptable from the biological point of view as there is no proof for them.
The reason why it is important to define the beginning of life is that with its beginning every human has basic human rights that are unimpeachable.
These rights are granted to every human without regard of attributes like age, race, sex, state of health or anything else and involve the right of human dignity and the right to live.
With cloning we would hurt these human rights, if one believes that life begins with fertilization.About the Gazette. The New Hampshire Gazette is an eight-page newspaper, published 26 times a year on alternating Fridays. Distributed for free in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, and the surrounding towns of Dover, Durham, Exeter, Newmarket, Rochester, and Somersworth, it is also available by subscription, from coast to coast and around the world.
Richer Sounds state that they also have certain rights as an employer. They say that some of these are the express rights which they clearly state in their Contract .
THE SPIKE. It was late-afternoon. Forty-nine of us, forty-eight men and one woman, lay on the green waiting for the spike to open.
We were too tired to talk much.
Introduction. Many readers of ROK may believe that feminism, with its supposed goal of achieving equality between men and women by promoting women’s rights, is a relatively new concept that was developed after the Industrial Revolution. Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback.
Online Library of Liberty. A collection of scholarly works about individual liberty and free markets. A project of Liberty Fund, Inc.