Properties[ edit ] The transcriptome of embryonic stem cells Embryonic stem cells ESCsderived from the blastocyst stage of early mammalian embryos, are distinguished by their ability to differentiate into any cell type and by their ability to propagate. ESC are also described as having a normal karyotypemaintaining high telomerase activity, and exhibiting remarkable long-term proliferative potential.
Stem Cell Biology and Toxicology 2: This session seeks to address this issue through outlining liver cell heath assays that are fit for purpose, and also outline the development of innovative preclinical test systems, which are both mechanism-based and of physiological, pharmacological, and pathological relevance to DILI in humans.
An iterative, tiered approach with respect to test compounds, test systems, bioanalysis, and mathematical systems analysis has been adopted to evaluate existing models, and develop new models that can provide validated test systems, with respect to the prediction of specific forms of DILI and further elucidation of mechanisms that relate to idiosyncratic DILI.
The approach encompasses completely characterised cell lines, well-defined, and physiologically stable hepatocytes, multi-cell type in vitro models and animal models.
Triangulation of human, in vitro and animal data is providing a fundamental understanding of how drugs can harm the liver, and how this relates to the idiosyncratic response. The objectives of this symposium: Explore and understand the relationship between in vitro assay signals and DILI in vivo, in preclinical test species, and in man; 3.
Enhance shared understanding, between academia, pharma, and regulatory agencies, of the value and limitations of new and existing approaches for DILI hazard identification and risk assessment.
Richard Weaver, Servier, Paris, France. Mikael Persson, Astrazeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden. A Race against the Clocks Symposium 2: Cardiovascular Toxicology Specialty Section Inhalation and Respiratory Specialty Section Exposure to air pollution has emerged as one of the leading causes of death world-wide.
The World Health Organization WHO estimates that every year exposure to air pollution causes 7 million premature deaths. Extensive epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to polluted air increases the risk of pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases as well as metabolic disorders; however, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms have remained elusive.
Air pollution exposure affects pulmonary, cardiac, and vascular functions that follow circadian rhythmicity and increases the risk for pulmonary and cardiovascular events that follow diurnal patterns.
Recent studies have shown that exposures to air pollution disrupt pulmonary and cardiovascular molecular circadian clocks, changes circadian blood pressure pattern, and exacerbates the cardiometabolic effects of dyssynchrony misaligned circadian rhythm.
This symposium will highlight this research, identifying the circadian clocks and rhythms as a novel target of air pollution exposure, and will compare the effects of air pollution on circadian rhythmicity with circadian rhythm disruption induced by other stressors such as ischemia, virus infections and diabetes.
The circadian rhythm—defined as physiological, mental, and behavioral changes following a 24 h cycle—controls fundamental physiology, cellular and molecular processes, such as blood pressure, cell division, and DNA-repair that regulate physiological homeostasis. Circadian rhythmicity is regulated by external signals such as light, temperature, food, or physical activity, called Zeitgeber.
However, the normal circadian rhythmicities of these environmental factors are disrupted by our modern lifestyle choices.
For instance, circadian dyssynchrony, the misalignment between the central clock supra chiasmatic nucleus, SCN in the hypothalamus and peripheral clocks by the disturbing the light cycle e.
Although the central pacemaker, the SCN has long been considered the primary regulator of circadian rhythm the discovery of clock gene expression, and function in peripheral tissues has challenged this dogma. Peripheral circadian clocks play a critical role in optimizing the organization of cellular function in the lungs, and are directly involved in metabolic homeostasis and cardiovascular function.
The studies presented in this symposium will illustrate the importance of different peripheral circadian clocks in the development of pulmonary, cardiovascular, and metabolic disorders, and will provide evidence that exposure to different air pollution disrupt peripheral circadian clocks and circadian rhythm in pulmonary and cardiovascular tissues similar to the circadian misalignment induced by other stressors such as ischemia, virus infections, and diabetes.
The specific presentations of this symposium will show that: In summary, this symposium will provide novel aspects and new mechanistic insights to understand the adverse health effects originating from air pollutant exposure, and our modern lifestyle in association with circadian clock and rhythm disturbances.
Clock Control of Cardiovascular Physiology and Pathophysiology.Abstract. Plants develop unorganized cell masses like callus and tumors in response to various biotic and abiotic stimuli.
Since the historical discovery that the combination of two growth-promoting hormones, auxin and cytokinin, induces callus from plant explants in vitro, this experimental system has been used extensively in both basic research and horticultural applications.
General guidelines for clinical application of cell therapies have been updated by the International Society for Stem Cell Research (Daley et al., ), and general safety considerations of stem cell-based products have been reviewed (Goldring et al., ).
Jan 01, · The greatest therapeutic promise of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) is to generate specialized cells to replace damaged tissue in patients suffering from various degenerative diseases.
However, the signaling mechanisms involved in lineage restriction of ESC to adopt various cellular phenotypes are. Characterization and culture of human embryonic stem cells was then maintained as a cell line by continuous subculture (Fig.
1). Despite these differences in the derivation process, all hES cell lines derived to date, however, exhibit similar expression. The derivation of human embryonic stem (hES) cells establishes a new avenue to approach many issues in human biology and medicine for the first time.
To meet the increased demand for characterized hES cell lines, we present the derivation and characterization of six hES cell lines. Feb 11, · Shortly afterwards, Gail Martin generated similar data using a teratocarcinoma feeder cell line to maintain these stem cells.
“embryonic stem cells”. In , characterization.