Neo-Realism vs Realism Waltz on Morgenthau:
Fear, Trust, and the Glimmer of a New Leviathan Ali DiskayaJul 18views This content was written by a student and assessed as part of a university degree. We knew the world would not be the same.
A few people laughed, a few people cried, most people were silent. I remembered the line from the Hindu scripture, the Bhagavad-Gita. Robert Oppenheimer, Introduction Sixty-seven years ago, J.
According to Kenneth Waltz, the pre-eminent International Relations IR theorist of the post-World War II era, the arms races between nuclear powers and the spread of nuclear weapons do not have to be a terrifying prospect.
This essay, however, rejects the Waltzian position and argues, instead, that lasting peace in a time where all-out thermonuclear war is a constant possibility requires better solutions to the most pressing security issue in the realm of international politics.
It will conclude by emphasising the importance of fresh critical thinking about nuclear weapons. More Fear May Be Better It is the strange fate of man, that even in the greatest of evils the fear of the worst continues to haunt him.
Waltz criticizes common-sense predictions that the world will become more dangerous as nuclear weapons spread as false, since they point less to likelihoods and more to dangers.
One might ask why the Waltz ofwho has argued that war will be perpetually associated with the existence of separate sovereign states, is arguing two decades later that these states should acquire nuclear weapons to guarantee peace.
Would this not make nuclear war more likely? In MSW Waltz had mostly ignored the thermonuclear dilemma because he could not allow it to affect his analysis of international politics. During his long career Waltz gradually diverged from the structuralist political philosophy he had articulated in MSW.
As mentioned above, he had initially argued that only the anarchic structure of the international system, a force that human aspirations and fears were helpless to overcome, explained war and peace.
In TIP, however, Waltz implicitly argued that bipolarity, reinforced by nuclear fear, was the driving force of great-power peace.
Finally, in his Adelphi Paper, Waltz claims that nuclear fear plays the greatest role in keeping peace — even greater than bipolarity. This fear, he concludes, is so strong that it can and should lead to an absolute world: The answer is simple: As he put it in In fact they are the only ones that have served the maintenance of peace rather than the making of war…We are in the midst of the longest peace among major powers that the modern world has known.
The accidental or deliberate use of nuclear weapons came close to occurring on many occasions during the Cold War; especially during the Quemoy and Matsu Crisis, the Berlin Crisis of  and the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Fear, especially fear of nuclear destruction, could not serve as a permanent basis of international order.
According to Wheeler, therefore, our main aim should be to try to open up space for trust-building under uncertainty. Wheeler describes trust as follows: The concept of security community was developed by Karl Deutsch in the mids.
Deutsch argues that the peaceful transformation of identities between former enemies within a territory is possible through trust-building, a strong sense of community recognition of common social problems that can be resolved peacefully and institution-building.
The most important case of nuclear trust-building, Wheeler argues, was the rapprochement that took place between Argentina and Brazil in the s. Earlier, the two states had been bitter rivals, each of them keen to develop nuclear weapons in order to defend itself and deter the other.
However, the decision makers on both sides realised that the opponent may act out of fear caused by their own actions nuclear arms races. The crucial question that Wheeler asks at the end of his paper is: Neither Argentina nor Brazil possessed or tested nuclear weapons which made cooperation far easier.Waltz argues that "because power is a means not an end, states prefer to join the weaker of two coalitions." (p.
) Again, the structure of the international system and the necessity of survival dictate this behavior. STRUCTURAL REALISM Archives and past articles from the steps in conducting a marketing research the Philadelphia Inquirer.
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