A brief history of telescopes

When Stoneage humans turned to an agrarian way of life and began to settle into communities, their interest must naturally have turned to the "heavens": The seasons became important; during different times of the year, different stellar patterns appear in the sky. In the spring, Virgo and her accompanying constellations signal the time to prepare the earth, to plant crops, and to be wary of floods.

A brief history of telescopes

Invention Notes on Hans Lipperhey's unsuccessfully requested a patent on the telescope in The first record of a telescope comes from the Netherlands in It is in a patent filed by Middelburg spectacle-maker Hans Lippershey with the States General of the Netherlands on 2 October for his instrument "for seeing things far away as if they were nearby".

The States General did not award a patent since the knowledge of the device already seemed to be ubiquitous [13] [14] but the Dutch government awarded Lippershey with a contract for copies of his design.

The original Dutch telescopes were composed of a convex and a concave lens —telescopes that are constructed this way do not invert the image. Lippershey's original design had only 3x magnification. Telescopes seem to have been made in the Netherlands in considerable numbers soon after this date of "invention", and rapidly found their way all over Europe.

Its actual function and creator has been disputed over the years. He had a local magistrate in Middelburg follow up on A brief history of telescopes childhood and early adult recollections of a spectacle maker named "Hans" who he remembered as the inventor of the telescope. The magistrate was contacted by a then unknown claimant, Middelburg spectacle maker Johannes Zachariassen, who testified that his father, Zacharias Janssen invented the telescope and the microscope as early as This testimony seemed convincing to Boreel, who now recollected that Zacharias and his father, Hans Martens, must have been who he remembered.

Bourne's is the best description of it, and from his writing it seemed to consist of peering into a large curved mirror that reflected the image produced by a large lens.

A (very) brief history of astronomy

Spread through Europe Lippershey's application for a patent was mentioned at the end of a diplomatic report on an embassy to Holland from the Kingdom of Siam sent by the Siamese king Ekathotsarot: This report was issued in October and distributed across Europe, leading to experiments by other scientists, such as the Italian Paolo Sarpiwho received the report in November, and the English mathematician and astronomer Thomas Harriotwho used a six-powered telescope by the summer of to observe features on the moon.

The Italian polymath Galileo Galilei was in Venice in June [34] and there heard of the "Dutch perspective glass" by means of which distant objects appeared nearer and larger.

Galileo states that he solved the problem of the construction of a telescope the first night after his return to Padua from Venice and made his first telescope the next day by fitting a convex lens in one extremity of a leaden tube and a concave lens in the other one. A few days afterwards, having succeeded in making a better telescope than the first, he took it to Venice where he communicated the details of his invention to the public and presented the instrument itself to the doge Leonardo Donatowho was sitting in full council.

The senate in return settled him for life in his lectureship at Padua and doubled his salary. Portrait of Galileo Galilei.

NASA - Telescope History It is in a patent filed by Middelburg spectacle-maker Hans Lippershey with the States General of the Netherlands on 2 October for his instrument "for seeing things far away as if they were nearby". The States General did not award a patent since the knowledge of the device already seemed to be ubiquitous [13] [14] but the Dutch government awarded Lippershey with a contract for copies of his design.

Galileo spent his time to improving the telescope, producing telescopes of increased power. His first telescope had a 3x magnification, but he soon made instruments which magnified 8x and finally, one nearly a meter long with a 37mm objective which he would stop down to 16mm or 12mm and a 23x magnification.

Galileo noted that the revolution of the satellites of Jupiter, the phases of Venus, rotation of the Sun and the tilted path its spots followed for part of the year pointed to the validity of the sun-centered Copernican system over other Earth-centered systems such as the one proposed by Ptolemy.

Galileo's instrument was the first to be given the name "telescope". These observations, together with Galileo's improvement of the instrument, led to the adoption of the name of the Galilean telescope for these early forms of telescope that employed a negative lens. The first person who actually constructed a telescope of this form was the Jesuit Christoph Scheiner who gives a description of it in his Rosa Ursina This led to his invention of the micrometerand his application of telescopic sights to precision astronomical instruments.

It was not till about the middle of the 17th century that Kepler's telescope came into general use: With one of these: From his book, "Machina coelestis" first partpublished in The sharpness of the image in Kepler's telescope was limited by the chromatic aberration introduced by the non-uniform refractive properties of the objective lens.

The only way to overcome this limitation at high magnifying powers was to create objectives with very long focal lengths. Besides having really long tubes these telescopes needed scaffolding or long masts and cranes to hold them up. Their value as research tools was minimal since the telescope's frame "tube" flexed and vibrated in the slightest breeze and sometimes collapsed altogether.

Aerial telescope In some of the very long refracting telescopes constructed afterno tube was employed at all. The objective was mounted on a swiveling ball-joint on top of a pole, tree, or any available tall structure and aimed by means of string or connecting rod.

A brief history of telescopes

The eyepiece was handheld or mounted on a stand at the focus, and the image was found by trial and error.Servicing mission 3A in December, replaced all six of the telescope's aging gyroscopes, which accurately point the telescope at its target. STS astronauts also replaced one of the telescope's three fine guidance sensors and installed a new computer, all in .

Writer/illustrator Larry Gonick and astronomer William Alschuler present a comic strip history of the telescope as part of Science's special Focus package commemorating the International Year of Astronomy.

Nov 21,  · A Brief History of X-ray Telescopes Marjorie Townsend and Bruno Rossi discuss the UHURU satellite's performance during preflight tests.

The Keplerian Telescope Was Devised in 1611

UHURU was the . In the following article, we will journey through time and explore 15 of the most significant telescopes, and their inventors where applicable, in history ranging from the first recorded telescope to space-based telescopes observing everything from .

Beyond Hubble: The Next Generation Space Telescope. Hubble's important mission will come to an end one day in the future. But the telescope's ultimate retirement will not signal the end of our unrivaled view of the universe.

Rather, it will mark a new beginning -- and even more amazing discoveries and images from space. For Hubble has a . 1 A Brief History of the Telescope and Ideas for Use in the High School Physics Classroom Michael J.

Polashenski University of Hawaii, Summer

About Sky & Telescope - Sky & Telescope